Private farming in Russia: history and current status
B. A. Voronin, doktor yuridicheskih nauk, professor, zaveduyuschiy kafedroy upravleniya i prava, YA. V. Voronina, starshiy prepodavatel kafedry upravleniya i prava, M. S. Serebrennikova, starshiy prepodavatel, L. N. Petrova aspirant Uralskogo GAUPrivate farming (PF) is a specific segment of agrarian economy based on the use of resources and labor potential of rural families. PF as a specific form of production under socialism originated in the late 20-ies in the process of collectivization of individual farms was based on state ownership of the basic means of pro-duction, including land, and personal labor of smallholders and their families. Since 1991 plots of land used in his household, according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, transferred to the possession citi- zens. As a rule, PF is a sphere of secondary employment, including employment in the public sphere of agricultural production. The specific nature of private farming as a special form of agricultural production is that it is based on personal labor and private ownership of some means of production. Work in PF is socially necessary, as it participates in the reproduction of labor power not only for personal but also for public sector and produces part of the national income, necessary for their society to participate and those family members who are not engaged in social production. The features, defining the specifics of the functioning of the smallholdings of the population, are increasing their share in gross volume of production and sales of agricultural products of Russia, higher proportion of the cost of consumed products received from smallholders, in total the cost of food in rural areas, with a significant increase in unemployment and the proportion of the population, have a future income below the subsistence minimum, and the reduction in the number of agricultural enterprises. To a certain extent this is a necessary natural reaction of the population to the policy of the state that is not conducive to the sustainable development of agricultural enterprises and the improvement of living standards of the rural population remaining without a job and a stable income.
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